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"The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity inProtected Areas" (Australia)



 
 
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Old June 16th 13, 02:45 AM posted to alt.mountain-bike
Mike Vandeman[_4_]
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Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity inProtected Areas" (Australia)

Proceedings of the Conference on
"Visions and Strategies for World's National Parks" and
"Issues Confronting the Management of the World's National Parks"(I)
Sponsors:
Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan
Ministry of Education, Taiwan
National Science Council, Taiwan
Organizers:
Department of Tourism, Recreation and Leisure Studies
National Dong Hwa University, HuaIien, Taiwan
Master Program of Landscape and Recreation
Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
Dates: August 02-03, 2010
The Problem of Moun lain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas
David Newsome
The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity
in Protected Areas
David Newsome
School of Environmental Science
Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia
Abstract
Mountain biking has grown rapidly as a leisure activity over the last 10 years and is undertaken in a
range of outdoor settings and protected areas. Participants can be related to a spectrum of activity
that needs to be understood for effective management. At one end of the spectrum lies the family
group who are seeking to enjoy exercise in an outdoor setting where cycling speeds are likely to be
low to moderate. At the other end are those that seek physically demanding rides and technical
challenge as part of the riding experience. Interlinked with this group is a casual user group who are
adrenaline junkies and thrill seekers who disregard park regulations, codes of conduct and
environmental values. Environmental impacts include loosened track surfaces, soil displacement
and liner rut development. Long narrow channels tend to form on trails where tyres depress the soil
in wet and damp conditions. The most significant environmental impacts, however, are the
development of user created trails and the construction of technical trail features. Such impacts 're
of major management concern when mountain bike activity takes the form of adventure racing and
competitive events. All forms of mountain biking in protected areas need to be understood,
monitored and proactively managed. Furthermore, because of the implications for managers and
other more passive users competition racing should not be permitted in the vast majority of national
parks and protected areas.
Keywords: Impacts, environmental impacts, leisure, social impacts, sport,
Introduction
Mountain biking is a relatively new leisure activity and sport and has shown a rapid recent
growth with substantial interest in the activity being undertaken in a range of outdoor settings and
particularly natural areas in many different countries (for example, Mason and Leberman, 2000;
Amberger, 2006; Hales and Kiewa, 2007; Naber, 2008). In Australia bike sales increased by 29% in
the period 2002-03, and 80% of all bikes being sold were mountain bikes with around I billion
dollars being spent on cycling in Australia each year (Bradshaw 2006). Surveys in the USA reveal
that since 1998 around 50 million people participated in mountain bike activity (Outdoor Industry
Foundation 2006). Mountain biking continues to grow as a recreational activity and in recent years
has become a competitive sport placing demands on resource managers to provide facilities and
unrestricted access to favoured cycling destinations.
39
∑ Proceedings of the Conference on
"Vision and Strategies for World 's National Parks" and
"Issues Confronting the Management of the World's National Parks"
Since the advent of mountain biking as an important leisure activity a number of social and
environmental problems have been recognised (Davies and Newsome, 2009; Newsome and Davies,
2009; Pickering et al. 2010 a, b). Ryan (2005) acknowledges that managers have responded slowly
to the needs of mountain bikers in terms of providing access and facilities in natural and especially
protected areas, such as national parks. This slow response is likely due to the perception, 10-15
years ago, that mountain biking was a low impact leisure and sport. As noted by Ryan (2005)
managers were aware that mountain bikers where accessing land in protected areas but did not
anticipate significant environmental problems and took no management action.. For example, in the
USA the increase in popularity of mountain biking has outpaced efforts to understand and therefore
manage mountain biking in natural areas (White el al. 2006). There is now a common trend world
wide of unplanned growth and mountain bike activity in natural areas along with reactive
management intervention such as the development of codes of conduct, assessment of trail damage,
closure of tracks and community engagement.
The increase in mountain biking is also associated, and closely connected with, a rise in
more active, adventure orientated leisure activity. Additionally, there has been a rapid rise in
sporting activities and competitive events that involve substantial organisation, the presence of
control points and spectator participation. Moreover, the rise in organised sporting activities often
has a retail/commercial aspect that includes the promotion and sale of vehicles, clothing and
equipment. Such sporting events are increasingly targeting natural areas as 'exciting' venues where
the events may also include running, rock and mountain climbing, horse riding, kayaking,
swimming and white water rafting. Because, as indicated above, this type of leisure activity poses
the risk of negative environmental impact it is argued here that the mountain bike activity in naturaL
areas needs to be understood, monitored and proactively managed. Moreover, because of their
environmental implications, the approval of sporting events in natural and protected areas needs to
be very carefully considered, require policy directives and rigourous environmental impact
assessment.
Understanding the nature of mountain bike activity in natural areas
..,
Mountain biking is complicated to understand due to the nature of the activity spect:rulJ1
along which it operates. Biking activities are recognised to vary greatly in terms of skills, eXlerOlSe,
motivation and use of equipment (Goeft & Alder 2001; IMBA 2007). Mountain biking ha.s
been recognised to fit into several different riding styles namely, cross country, touring, dowrth,i ll;
free riding and dirt jumping (IMBA 2007). Interchange between these categories is also observed
riders may participate in more than one type of riding (IMBA 2007; Davies and Newsome, 20(J9), ,tjt
For the purposes of this discussion mountain biking will be divided into categories that fit
and the centre of the activity spectrum.
40
The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas
David Newsome
At one end of the spectrum lies the family group who is interested in cycling in rural areas
and outdoor settings. Such groups often comprise adults and children interested in utilising formed
paths and approved trails. This mountain biking demographic varies from inexperienced general
cyclists to avid riders (IMBA 2007; CALM 2007). The general cyclists and inexperienced riders
tend to prefer riding on wide paths, roads or dedicated bike paths. Such groups because they
dominantly use standard mountain bikes, that have little or no suspension tend to be limited to
riding on formed roads and paths with no difficult ground to traverse (CALM 2007, IMBA 2007).
Part of this general cycling (family oriented) demographic can be more experienced and
demanding of riding conditions and seek out more remote, longer trails for solitude, to desire
additional exercise and/or more remote nature experiences (IMBA 2007). Such groups may wish to
travel long distances and self may carry tools, food, water and first aid kits (IMBA 2007). Part of
the experience for this end of the demographic (family group) may be the desire to ride trails that
are only wide enough for a single rider or groups in a single line (CALM 2007, IMBA 2007). At
this end of the spectrum cycling speeds are likely to be low to moderate but the nature of the group
suggests that they are seeking to enjoy exercise in an outdoor setting, experience nature and some
degree of solitude and do not require technical challenge to be part of the riding experience.
The central part of the mountain biking activity spectrum contains the touring and downhill
riding categories of IMBA (2007). Touring involves more dedicated riding and frequently comprises
longer trips including overnight stays. Because these cyclists are often carrying camping equipment
in panniers they are generally not seeking highly technical, steep or narrow trails as panniers alter
the balance and increase the weight and width of the bike, (Davies and Newsome, 2009). In
contrast as the spectrum shifts away from the centre to more active mountain biking activity the
downhill riding category caube recognised. Downhill riders tend to use heavy full suspension bikes
for descending technically challenging trails (IMBA 2007). Mountain bikers interviewed in Western
Australia identified the downhill style as the most popular riding activity and desired to ride on
trails with features such as long curves, tight curves, steep slopes, jumps, rocks, logs and short
uphill sections (Goeft & Alder 2001). Furthermore, the downhill riding style is also recognised as a
competitive category in the Perth mountain bike club (pMBC 2007).
The spectrum of activity thus contains a demographic that rides faster and demands
technically challenging rides. As the desire for more challenging cycling increases the spectrum of
activity moves to mountain bikers who are interested in demanding and technically difficult cycling
opportunities. The free riding and dirt jumping categories recognised by IMBA (2007) lie here. Free
riders are interested in technical challenges in the form of obstacles (rocks, logs) and various
constructed features such as elevated bridges, dirt jumps; drops offs and see saws in combination
with steep descents (IMBA 2007). This is a higher risk situation occurring in unconventional or
rough and unpredictable) terrain (Davies and Newsome, 2009). Dirt jumpers would lie at the
opposite end of the spectrum to the family group in that they use a range of bikes that can tolerate a
41
Proceedings of the Conference on
"Vision and Strategies for World's National Parks" and
"Issues Confronting tbe Management oftbe World's National Parks"
range of jumping areas and styles (IMBA 2007).
In summary, therefore, at the opposite end of the spectrum from where the family group,
who like to cycle on formed tracks, is the group that desires technical challenge. This end of the
spectrum is in itself rather complex. Here there may be adventure sports riders. Intertwined with
this group is a casual user group who is adrenaline junkies and thrill seekers. This group may
operate without competitive sporting interests in mind or develop an interest in and graduate
towards sporting interests. It is this end of the spectrum that poses the greatest challenge and
problems for land managers. Where there are heavy bikes, steep slopes and aggressive riding styles
there is likely to be environmental damage (Davies and Newsome, 2009). Furthermore where riders
have a complete disregard for park regulations, codes of conduct and environmental values there is
like I y to be ongoing and significant environmental impact.
Impacts and management of mountain biking in natUral areas
The environmental impacts of mountain biking and particularly in the Australian context
have recently been explored by Davies and Newsome (2009), Newsome and Davies (2009),
Pickering el al. (2010 a, b). Impacts of mountain bike use in protected areas can be divided into
social, on trail, off trail and institutional. .
Social impacts involve the perceptions of other users such as hikers and those people
seeking authentic natural experiences towards mountain biking. Other users may feel that mountain
biking already causes unacceptable environmental impacts, be concerned that mountain biking is
not an appropriate leisure activity in protected areas and that sharing trails with mountain bikers
constitutes a safety hazard (Davies and Newsome, 2009). The latter point may become particularly
significant when walk trails, not designated for mountain biking, are used by bikers.
Where mountain bikers use trail networks the actions of applying the breaks and sliding
cause erosion by creating loosened track surfaces, displacing soil and liner rut development. Long
narrow channels may form where tyres depress the soil in wet and damp conditions. The resulting
compaction and liner rill network constitutes a significant erosion risk in sloping terrain (Newsome
and Davies, 2009). Leung & Marion (1999), Goeft & Alder (2001), Chiu & Kriwoken (2003) all
identify the actions of cornering, skidding or breaking on slopes or wet ground as contributing to
trail degradation.
The most significant environmental impact, however, brought about by mountain bikers is
the creation of their own (illegally developed) trails to foster their own riding interests. Mountain
bikers who occupy the 'adrenaline junkie' end of the activity spectrum create their own cycle
pathways in order to locate and develop more challenging rides, as a short cut, to reach specific
destinations or to connect existing tracks (IMBA 2007; Newsome and Davies, 2009). Significant
damage to natural areas can occur when mountain bikers go deliberately off track. User created trail
development increases the area of land, fauna and flora subject to disturbance through the adding of
42
The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas
David Newsome
linear cleared track ways or widening existing trails (Cessford, 2003; Davies and Newsome, 2009).
Informal trails can be created very quickly with a substantial amount of vegetation loss and soil
damage occurring in the first year of their development (IMBA 2007). For example, it was found
that in one small area of John Forrest National Park in Western Australia mountain bikers had
created an informal trail 2.34 km in length with 199 m of bypass trail creating an informal trail
network of 2.54 km. Using an approximate trail width of 1m it was shown that 2540 m2 of forest
area has been cleared to create this informal trail network (Newsome and Davies, 2009). Given that
John Forrest National Park is regularly used by mountain bikers and that other areas in the park
have been impacted (for example, at another site in the park 18 mountain biker created trails have
been counted on an 800m segment of walk trail) the total area impacted for this peri-urban protected
area is likely to be unacceptably large.
In addition to this there is the problem of the creation of technical trail features (TTF's)
either on existing trail networks or illegally constructed access routes. TTF's are trail elements that
enhance the character and difficulty in riding a trail (Davies and Newsome, 2009). TTF's come in
the form of (1) natural features such as rocky terrain and fallen trees, (2) modified trail substrates,
such as created banks, holes and piles of rocks or (3) as artificially constructed features such as
ladders, drop offs, narrow items that can be traversed and see saws. In relation to the mountain biker
created trail network in John Forrest National Park described earlier, 18 TTF's were identified and
riders had created 1 TTF every 140 m or 7 TTF's every kilometre of mountain biker created trail
(Newsome and Davies, 2009). Recent work by Pickering et al. (2010 b) found 116 TTF's creating
an area of 1601 m2 of bare soil in a 29ha patch of remnant eucalypt forest in Queensland, Australia.
The fourth impact is the cost of management response to mountain biking in protected areas.
The complexity of the demographic makes it a difficult leisure activity to manage in terms of
controlling damage, satisfying the different participants according to the spectrum and repairing
damage that has already taken place. This is why approved mountain biking activity is an important
consideration. The management of mountain biking in protected area context is considered in more
detail by Davies and Newsome (2009); Newsome and Davies (2009) and Pickering et al. (20 lOb).
The significance of mountain biking as a leisure activity for managers
Davies and Newsome (2009) point out that different user groups need to be educated to
understand each others' needs in order to remove social conflict. Clearly, managers need to
understand what various users want while users, and especially mountain bikers need to appreciate
that the core function of protected areas is conservation of flora, fauna and landscape and the
promotion of natural values and experiences.
Education of mountain bikers is critical and can take the form of signage, promotion of user
etiquette such as low iropact usage and respect for park rules as well as law enforcement activities
(Moore 1994; Carothers et al. 2001). Understanding mountain bike rider preferences and providing
43
;
Proceedings of the Conference on
"Vision and Strategies for World's National Parks" and
"Issues Confronting tbe Management of the World's National Parks"
a range of suitable trails can prevent riders creating their own trails (Geoft & Alder 2001; CALM
2007). Educating riders about the environmental and social impacts of illegally created trails might
reduce the number of such trails formed by bikers. In terms of trail usage 'expert' high-speed riders
can be directed onto dedicated single use (mountain bike specific) tracks within suitable park
planning, zoning and infrastructure settings. Engagement with mountain bike clubs and associations
and members of the mountain biking community will provide managers with knowledge of what the
adventure oriented mountain bikers seek from a riding experience at a specific location (Bicycle SA
2001, IMBA 2007).
Environmental damage of existing trail networks can be minimised through appropriate trail
location, design and management (see Goeft & Alder 2001 ; Lathrop 2003; Marion & Leung 2004,
CALM 2007). Trail construction techniques such as tread hardening and geosynthetic materials can
be utilised where trail segments are susceptible to erosion (Meyer 2002, Marion & Leung 2004).
The problem with this approach, however, is that many mountain bikers prefer trail features such as
bare rocks, roots and uneven surfaces as these add to their experience. Providing jumps, steep
sections and obstacles within the design of the trail may help to reduce the chance of users creating
them informally (Goeft & Alder (2001). However, such approaches modifY the natural features and
trafficability of a trail and can pose difficulties and prove to be unacceptable if also used by hikers
or horse riders. Where mountain bikers desire technically difficult and challenging trails and this is
not deemed acceptable in a protected area setting then lower conservation value specific areas, such
as a skills park concept, could be allocated for mountain bike activity. Purpose built networks can
be constructed, where TIP's can also be incorporated into a downhill course, in order to satisfy the
demand for technically difficult trails (see Pickering et al. 2010 b for details).
Challenges for the futu a complex demographic and the rise of competitive racing events
As Davies and Newsome (2009) observe many riders are 'free agents' as they do not join
clubs but instead organise their biking activity and mountain bike social connections more
informally via the internet or mobile phone text messaging. In this way websites can be utilised for
organising rides and gaining information. Park managers in Western Australia have noticed that
because of the speed of electronic communication and their informal structure it is difficult for
managers to address the problem of organised informal trail use and the encouragement of TIP
construction (Annear pers. comm. 2007). Another dimension is the non-organised casual user;
mountain bikers who are not particularly interested in long distance cycling or affiliation with a
club, but who undertake mountain biking as a thrill seeking experience. Such people may use
existing mountain biker created trails or create their own trails and install TIP's in a non-organised
and haphazard way.
Many natural and protected areas are increasingly being targeted as areas for adventure
racing and sporting events. This is of increasing concern to managers and conservationists who see
44
The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas
David Newsome
this trend as inappropriate use of a protected area. Although many events that take place at. present,
"', which are actively promoted by tourism agencies, do not request access to or are not allowed to take
place in many conservation estates, protected areas around the world are increasingly theJocus of .
',~. . .. ' - . f
the rising interest and participation in mountain biking races. Mountain bike adventure ra~ng also, ,
poses an additional 'problem in that such events can gain s~pport through their prom9tion ~s'"
, . :. -' 'l ".\
sporting activities, healthy lifestyles and as local community income generators.
Organised competitive events can result in environmental impacts as described earlier. ,
These include damage to trails, soil erosion, trampling of vegetation, disturbance of wildlife and∑,
noise and crowding at control points, finish lines, spectator viewing areas and car parks. As.with the
situations already described with mountain biking as a leisure activity the severity and frequency of
environmental impacts caused by organised events will be dependent on capacity of the
management agency to maintain infrastructure, control impacts, and adequately audit any sporting
events. This is in tum is reliant on adequate staffing levels, staff expertise in understanding the
nature of the activity and suitable funding to carry out required operations and visitor management.
In many locations around the world competitive events that target a protected area will
require approval to operate according to protected area management plans and planning frameworks.
In the case of Australia event organisers will submit an event plan or, if deemed necessary, an
environmental management plan. Such a plan is designed to mitigate negative social and
environmental impacts arising from participation in the event and the activities of support crews and
spectators.
Sporting events can involve 200-300 (sometimes 1,000) participants, spectators, support
vehicles and their own modes of transport. Adventure racing may be a 12 hour or 3 -J 0 day e'{ent
and involve on behalf of the participants physical strain, exhaustion, sometimes sleep deprivation
and a competitive attitude. The last characteristic in particular is not conducive to the preservation
Or appreciation of natural values as the focus is on competition and winning and not caring for or
learning about the environment. In relation to the formulation of policy and in regard to
management choices decision makers have to be very careful in approving such activities and
allowing a demographic to clearly view the natural setting/protected area as an adventure
playground and as a place to compete. This issue is especially important given the ' impacts
identified earlier.
Given that the impacts of mountain biking have increased dramatically in recent years it is
vital that an appropriate message is sent to the community as to how a protected is to be viewed and .
Used by the public and including mountain bikers. It is important therefore that the concept of
protected environments, sustainable tourism and passive recreational activities are fostered in the
pUblic eye. Governments and managers have a responsibility in protecting highly valued natural
areas and in the promotion of app1-:ipriate recreational activities. A significant argument being
45
Proceedings of the Conference on
"Vision and Strategies for World's National Parks" and
"Issues Confronting the Management of the World's National Parks"
presented here, therefore, is a call for managers to be proactive in the marketing and promotion of
passive and appropriate recreational use, via interpretation and events policies, so that they are in a
better position when having to respond to commercially driven and government supported (tourism
organisations) interests in protected areas. If protected areas become adventure playgrounds and
settings for extreme sporting events what message will be conveyed to the general public? Will the
message be that it is acceptable to use protected areas as the backdrop for mountain biking events,
adventure races and combined mountain biking, abseiling and running activities. Such activities are
not conducive to contemplative appreciation of nature, learning about nature and which have the
potential to negatively impact on a protected areas natural values thus compromising visitor
perception of natural experiences.
If such activities are to be allowed or tolerated in some protected area a manager may wish
to designate unimportant sacrificial areas where regular events are allowed to take place. But
caution needs to be exercised here as if such a concept gains approval can managers be sure that the
impacts of mountain biking will be reduced and contained elsewhere? The overall message that
might be perceived by the public may be that it is acceptable to use protected areas in this way.
Events taking place in designated protected areas need to be subject to environmental impact
assessment. The assessment should explore the capacity of management to control impacts. If such
an event is perceived as significant money earner will this influence decision-making? If controls
are perceived as being too expensive and restrictive will these force event organisers to target
locations elsewhere in the world that may have less rigourous environmental approvals programs?
Conclusion
Mountain biking has undergone rapid growth in recent times and compnses a complex
demographic that needs to be understood in tenns of its impact as a leisure and sporting activity.
Extensive and regular activity is occurring in a range of natural environments which are proving to
be a significant management problem. Environmental impacts include social impacts, liner rut
development, soil erosion, the modification of existing trails, the proliferation of mountain bike user
created trails and the construction of a range of technical trail features on trails that bikers use.
Management of mountain bike activity in protected areas is going to be difficult due to the
complexity of the user spectrum with slow riding family groups occupying one end and the thrill
seeking, fast riding, technically difficult seeking group at the other. It is possible that the complex
demands of the mountain biking spectrum will never be satisfied because the thrill seeking end of
the spectrum are always searching for new areas and new, demanding riding experiences. A great
deal of work remains to be done in educating and working with mountain bikers. Additional
attention will have to focus on the provision of facilities such as dedicated mountain biking trails
and mountain bike skills parks in the future.
46
The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas
David Newsome
The increasing trend for sporting activity and organized events to target protected areas should
be viewed by managers with much caution. Pressure to host adventure races and cycling events may
be fostered under the guise of health promotion and outdoor appreciation. It is important to realize
that such events occurring in protected areas will often involve the intensive use of certain areas and
trail networks and increase the risk of trampling, trail damage and social impacts. In order to deliver
an appropriate message to the wider public and mountain bikers themselves it is therefore important
that careful evaluation of the long-term consequences of mountain biking and other events is
undertaken. Overall such events should not be permitted in the vast majority of national parks and
protected areas.
References
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Gree.,4, 135-144.
Bicycle SA, (200 I). State mountain bike plan for South Australia, Office for Sport, Recreation and
Racing, www.recsport.sa.gov.au.
Bradshaw, G. (2006). The Australian bicycle industry report 2006. Bicycle Industries Australia.
Melbourne, Australia: Graphyte Media Pty Ltd.
CALM, (2007). Mountain Bike Management Guidelines DRAFT, Department of Conservation and
Land Management, Perth, Australia.
Carothers, P., Vaske, 1.1., Donnelly, M.P., 2001. Social values versus interpersonal conflict among
hikers and mountain bikers, Leisure SCiences, 23, 47-61.
Cessford, G.R. (2003). Perception and reality of conflict: Walkers and mountain bikes on the Queen
Charlotte track in New Zealand. Journal for Nature Conservation, II (4), 310-3l6.
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Sustainable Tourism. The Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
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"Issues Confronting the Management oftbe World's National Parks"
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48
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Old June 16th 13, 03:31 AM posted to alt.mountain-bike
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Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity inProtected Areas" (Australia)

Yawn...
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Old June 16th 13, 07:53 AM posted to alt.mountain-bike
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Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas" (Australia)


Ah, Micky, you little scientific FRAUD you.

Of all the Universities in the entire world, you have to pick my Alma
Mater.

You've EDITED the paper to suit your own twisted preferences.

I'm busy with something called A Life at the moment, so I'm sure others can
call you more on this but just ONE
example is P43 where you have REMOVED this bit about providing trails AND
finding out what mountain bikers
want.

You probably thought it would just get glossed over but as I said, my Alma
Mater, from 1976 and onward and
a researcher of particular standing in the community.

The bit you removed.....
Understanding mountain bike rider preferences and providing a range of
suitable trails can prevent
riders creating their own trails (Geoft & Alder 2001; CALM
2007). Educating riders about the environmental and social impacts of
illegally created trails might
reduce the number of such trails formed by bikers. In terms of trail usage
'expert' high-speed riders
can be directed onto dedicated single use (mountain bike specific) tracks
within suitable park
planning, zoning and infrastructure settings. Engagement with mountain bike
clubs and associations
and members of the mountain biking community will provide managers with
knowledge of what the
adventure oriented mountain...

CAUGHT, ****wit.
  #4  
Old June 16th 13, 08:16 AM posted to alt.mountain-bike
I love Mike
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Posts: 332
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activityin Protected Areas" (Australia)

busted I say. I have confronted him on another post but he tried to answer my question with another one.
  #5  
Old June 16th 13, 04:50 PM posted to alt.mountain-bike
Mike Vandeman[_4_]
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Posts: 1,755
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activityin Protected Areas" (Australia)

On Saturday, June 15, 2013 11:53:26 PM UTC-7, wrote:
Ah, Micky, you little scientific FRAUD you.



Of all the Universities in the entire world, you have to pick my Alma

Mater.



You've EDITED the paper to suit your own twisted preferences.



I'm busy with something called A Life at the moment, so I'm sure others can

call you more on this but just ONE

example is P43 where you have REMOVED this bit about providing trails AND

finding out what mountain bikers

want.



You probably thought it would just get glossed over but as I said, my Alma

Mater, from 1976 and onward and

a researcher of particular standing in the community.



The bit you removed.....

Understanding mountain bike rider preferences and providing a range of

suitable trails can prevent

riders creating their own trails (Geoft & Alder 2001; CALM

2007). Educating riders about the environmental and social impacts of

illegally created trails might

reduce the number of such trails formed by bikers. In terms of trail usage

'expert' high-speed riders

can be directed onto dedicated single use (mountain bike specific) tracks

within suitable park

planning, zoning and infrastructure settings. Engagement with mountain bike

clubs and associations

and members of the mountain biking community will provide managers with

knowledge of what the

adventure oriented mountain...



CAUGHT, ****wit.


BS. "Understanding mountain bike rider preferences and providing
43
;
Proceedings of the Conference on
"Vision and Strategies for World's National Parks" and
"Issues Confronting tbe Management of the World's National Parks"
a range of suitable trails can prevent riders creating their own trails (Geoft & Alder 2001; CALM
2007)."

Ask your mommie to teach you how to search. Idiot. But I understand why mountain bikers see "fraud" everywhere, because they are themselves engaged in it all the time.
  #6  
Old June 16th 13, 04:53 PM posted to alt.mountain-bike
Mike Vandeman[_4_]
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Posts: 1,755
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activityin Protected Areas" (Australia)

On Sunday, June 16, 2013 8:50:32 AM UTC-7, Mike Vandeman wrote:
On Saturday, June 15, 2013 11:53:26 PM UTC-7, wrote:

Ah, Micky, you little scientific FRAUD you.








Of all the Universities in the entire world, you have to pick my Alma




Mater.








You've EDITED the paper to suit your own twisted preferences.








I'm busy with something called A Life at the moment, so I'm sure others can




call you more on this but just ONE




example is P43 where you have REMOVED this bit about providing trails AND




finding out what mountain bikers




want.








You probably thought it would just get glossed over but as I said, my Alma




Mater, from 1976 and onward and




a researcher of particular standing in the community.








The bit you removed.....




Understanding mountain bike rider preferences and providing a range of




suitable trails can prevent




riders creating their own trails (Geoft & Alder 2001; CALM




2007). Educating riders about the environmental and social impacts of




illegally created trails might




reduce the number of such trails formed by bikers. In terms of trail usage




'expert' high-speed riders




can be directed onto dedicated single use (mountain bike specific) tracks




within suitable park




planning, zoning and infrastructure settings. Engagement with mountain bike




clubs and associations




and members of the mountain biking community will provide managers with




knowledge of what the




adventure oriented mountain...








CAUGHT, ****wit.




BS. "Understanding mountain bike rider preferences and providing

43

;

Proceedings of the Conference on

"Vision and Strategies for World's National Parks" and

"Issues Confronting tbe Management of the World's National Parks"

a range of suitable trails can prevent riders creating their own trails (Geoft & Alder 2001; CALM

2007)."



Ask your mommie to teach you how to search. Idiot. But I understand why mountain bikers see "fraud" everywhere, because they are themselves engaged in it all the time.


Awaiting your apology (which I know you aren't man enough to give)....
  #7  
Old June 17th 13, 06:51 AM posted to alt.mountain-bike
I love Mike
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Posts: 332
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activityin Protected Areas" (Australia)

Are you a comedian?
  #8  
Old June 17th 13, 07:05 AM posted to alt.mountain-bike
I love Mike
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Posts: 332
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activityin Protected Areas" (Australia)

Don't you know Mikey mountain bikers are part of a global conspiracy to take over the world with the gray aliens that crashed at Roswell in the 1940s. Tell us Mikey what other conspiracy theories do you believe in? Bigfoot? Chemtrails? The reptilian elite?
  #9  
Old June 20th 13, 03:05 PM posted to alt.mountain-bike
[email protected]
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 7
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activity in Protected Areas" (Australia)

Bluster all you want Micky - the fact remains that you REMOVED the bit about
providing trails and engagement.

I wonder if your supposed PhD thesis is constructed in a similar fashion?
Cut out the bits you didn't like from the quotes you used?

One would expect this from a convicted criminal and now recently discovered
selective quoter.

It is a moot point, though, as your pathetic ranting and posturing is not
stopping the increase in popularity of Mountain Biking.

Olympic Sport, no less?
  #10  
Old June 20th 13, 07:24 PM posted to alt.mountain-bike
Mike Vandeman[_4_]
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 1,755
Default "The Problem of Mountain Biking as Leisure and Sporting Activityin Protected Areas" (Australia)

On Thursday, June 20, 2013 7:05:13 AM UTC-7, wrote:
Bluster all you want Micky - the fact remains that you REMOVED the bit about providing trails and engagement.


Learn to read. It's very easy to find it in my post. Just LOOK! STILL awaiting your apology.

I wonder if your supposed PhD thesis is constructed in a similar fashion? Cut out the bits you didn't like from the quotes you used? One would expect this from a convicted criminal and now recently discovered selective quoter. It is a moot point, though, as your pathetic ranting and posturing is not stopping the increase in popularity of Mountain Biking. Olympic Sport, no less?


 




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